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Network Types - Low Temperature District Heating

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A short introduction about distribution network types with photos from nature. Please give a focus how the veins of these leafs in the photo are structured. Some branched, some having a loop formation and some a mixture of both! A question rises that highlights the necessity of distribution systems in our lives, especially district heating/cooling networks: why such natural elements have a structure of distribution instead of individual production? Please think about various forms of distribution in the nature: you can find lots of examples i.e. the blood vessels, neural system, etc.! The network layout (network topology) is briefly described after this inspiring-from-nature photo below. 
Obvious that nature at most uses centralized distribution to satisfy the local needs. So do the district heating systems! Although in my publications the network layout was took part in the observations found in the field of low temperature district heating systems, the mature technology district he…

Substation Types - Low Temperature District Heating

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A brief introduction can be rewarding about the substation types while talking about Low Temperature District Heating Systems. 
First thing that comes to mind, in Low Temperature District Heating Systems, is if the low temperature supply at a temperature of 55°C can cause legionella growth or not while producing the domestic hot water. One of the solutions to overcome the legionella growth can be by equipping storage tank before the heat exchanger in the substations with indirect connection. Hence the storage tank (also termed as Heat Accumulator and Buffer Tank) will store the medium circulated in the distribution network not the domestic hot water that is used directly from the tap. According to the German Standard, if the volume storing the domestic hot water medium is less than 3 liter there is no minimal limit for the supply temperature [1]. Hence, keeping the volume of the domestic hot water in the pipeline less than 3 liters can restrain the growth of legionella. Besides, usin…

Glossary - Low Temperature District Heating

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Low Temperature District Heating Systems, the 4th generation (4G) district heating technology, are superior with their low degrees of temperature that is commonly with 55°C of supply and 25°C return. In this blog post, the terminology commonly used in the field of low temperature district heating systems is published to keep the consistency/standardization of the terms. Some being newly famous with the low temperature upgrade, though most are already common in the field of District Heating technology. Links for the original document which this blog post based on are provided at the bottom of the page.

Description of the Terms Low Temperature: Excessively low temperature supply of about 50°C to the heated space Low Energy: Used for district heating systems operating at low temperatures. Low grade: Surplus heat at low temperatures which it is hard to exploit. Heat carrier medium: A medium consisting of a fluid used to transport heat in such a way that a change in enthalpy occurs through …

Counter Attack

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Bad Decisions

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Understanding Level

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Gift of Darkness

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